University of Bristol Quantum Computation & Information Group

Dr Nicolas Brunner
Department of Physics
University of Bristol
H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory
Royal Fort, Tyndall Avenue
Bristol BS8 1TL, U.K.
Fax: +44(0)117 925-5624
Recent publications:

  • A quantum delayed choice experiment
    Alberto Peruzzo, Peter J. Shadbolt, Nicolas Brunner, Sandu Popescu, Jeremy L. O'Brien
    22 May 2012

    Abstract:
    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.
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  • Guess your neighbour's input: no quantum advantage but an advantage for quantum theory
    Antonio Acín, Mafalda L. Almeida, Remigiusz Augusiak, Nicolas Brunner
    14 May 2012

    Abstract:
    Quantum mechanics dramatically differs from classical physics, allowing for a wide range of genuinely quantum phenomena. The goal of quantum information is to understand information processing from a quantum perspective. In this mindset, it is thus natural to focus on tasks where quantum resources provide an advantage over classical ones, and to overlook tasks where quantum mechanics provides no advantage. But are the latter tasks really useless from a more general perspective? Here we discuss a simple information-theoretic game called 'guess your neighbour's input', for which classical and quantum players perform equally well. We will see that this seemingly innocuous game turns out to be useful in various contexts. From a fundamental point of view, the game provides a sharp separation between quantum mechanics and other more general physical theories, hence bringing a deeper understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. The game also finds unexpected applications in quantum foundations and quantum information theory, related to Gleason's theorem, and to bound entanglement and unextendible product bases.
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  • Bell inequalities for three systems and arbitrarily many measurement outcomes
    Basile Grandjean, Yeong-Cherng Liang, Jean-Daniel Bancal, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin
    17 April 2012

    Abstract:
    We present a family of Bell inequalities for three parties and arbitrarily many outcomes, which can be seen as a natural generalization of the Mermin Bell inequality. For a small number of outcomes, we verify that our inequalities define facets of the polytope of local correlations. We investigate the quantum violations of these inequalities, in particular with respect to the Hilbert space dimension. We provide strong evidence that the maximal quantum violation can only be reached using systems with local Hilbert space dimension exceeding the number of measurement outcomes. This suggests that our inequalities can be used as multipartite dimension witnesses.
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  • The Complete Quantum Cheshire Cat
    Yelena Guryanova, Nicolas Brunner, Sandu Popescu
    19 March 2012

    Abstract:
    We show that a physical property can be entirely separated from the object it belongs to, hence realizing a complete quantum Cheshire cat. Our setup makes use of a type of quantum state of particular interest, namely an entangled pre- and post-selected state, in which the pre- and post-selections are entangled with each other. Finally we propose a scheme for the experimental implementation of these ideas.
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  • Classical simulation of entanglement swapping with bounded communication
    Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Brunner, Harry Buhrman, Richard Cleve, Nicolas Gisin, Samuel Portmann, Denis Rosset, Mario Szegedy
    02 March 2012

    Abstract:
    Entanglement appears under two different forms in quantum theory, namely as a property of states of joint systems and as a property of measurement eigenstates in joint measurements. By combining these two aspects of entanglement, it is possible to generate nonlocality between particles that never interacted, using the protocol of entanglement swapping. We show that even in the more constraining bilocal scenario where distant sources of particles are assumed to be independent, i.e. to share no prior randomness, this process can be simulated classically with bounded communication, using only 9 bits in total. Our result thus provides an upper bound on the nonlocality of the process of entanglement swapping.
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  • Bell tests for continuous variable systems using hybrid measurements and heralded amplifiers
    Jonatan Bohr Brask, Nicolas Brunner, Daniel Cavalcanti, Anthony Leverrier
    01 March 2012

    Abstract:
    We present Bell tests for optical continuous variable systems, combining both hybrid measurements (i.e. measuring both particle and wave aspects of light) and heralded amplifiers. We discuss two types of schemes, in which the amplifier is located either at the source, or at the parties' laboratories. The inclusion of amplifiers helps to reduce the detrimental effect of losses in the setup. In particular, we show that the requirements in terms of detection efficiency and transmission losses are significantly reduced, approaching the experimentally accessible regime.
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  • A framework for the study of symmetric full-correlation Bell-like inequalities
    Jean-Daniel Bancal, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Yeong-Cherng Liang
    10 January 2012

    Abstract:
    Full-correlation Bell-like inequalities represent an important subclass of Bell-like inequalities that have found applications in both a better understanding of fundamental physics and in quantum information science. Loosely speaking, these are inequalities where only measurement statistics involving all parties play a role. In this paper, we provide a framework for the study of a large family of such inequalities that are symmetrical with respect to arbitrary permutations of the parties. As an illustration of the power of our framework, we derive (i) a new family of Svetlichny inequalities for arbitrary numbers of parties, settings and outcomes, (ii) a new family of two-outcome device-independent entanglement witnesses for genuine n-partite entanglement and (iii) a new family of two-outcome Tsirelson inequalities for arbitrary numbers of parties and settings. We also discuss briefly the application of these new inequalities in the characterization of quantum correlations.
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  • Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices
    Peter Shadbolt, Tamas Vertesi, Yeong-Cherng Liang, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Brunner, Jeremy L. O'Brien
    09 November 2011

    Abstract:
    Bell tests---the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation---are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, underpin quantum technologies, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for technological developments in these areas. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of the measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between the two parties---both technically demanding tasks in general. Surprisingly, we show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities with near certainty with (i) unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen local measurements on a singlet state of two photons implemented with reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuits based on voltage-controlled phase shifters. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This new approach is likely to have important applications in both fundamental science and in quantum technologies, including device independent quantum key distribution.
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  • Experimental estimation of the dimension of classical and quantum systems
    Martin Hendrych, Rodrigo Gallego, Michal Mičuda, Nicolas Brunner, Antonio Acín, Juan P. Torres
    07 November 2011

    Abstract:
    An overwhelming majority of experiments in classical and quantum physics make a priori assumptions about the dimension of the system under consideration. However, would it be possible to assess the dimension of a completely unknown system only from the results of measurements performed on it, without any extra assumption? The concept of a dimension witness \cite{brunner, perezgarcia, wehner, perez, gbha} answers this question, as it allows one to bound the dimension of an unknown classical or quantum system in a device-independent manner, that is, only from the statistics of measurements performed on it. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of dimension witnesses in a prepare and measure scenario \cite{gbha}. We use pairs of photons entangled in both polarization and orbital angular momentum \cite{molina-terriza2007,mair2001} to generate ensembles of classical and quantum states of dimensions up to 4. We then use a dimension witness to certify their dimensionality as well as their quantum nature. Our results open new avenues for the device-independent estimation of unknown quantum systems \cite{mayers, bardyn, bancal, rabelo} and for applications in quantum information science \cite{marcin, guo}.
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  • Loophole-free quantum steering
    Bernhard Wittmann, Sven Ramelow, Fabian Steinlechner, Nathan K. Langford, Nicolas Brunner, Howard Wiseman, Rupert Ursin, Anton Zeilinger
    04 November 2011

    Abstract:
    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories 1-6. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system 7. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance" 8. Steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests 9-11. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes by a large separation, ultra-fast switching, quantum random number generation, and high, overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude - for the first time loophole-free - an important class of local realistic theories. As well as its foundational importance 9,10, loop-hole-free steering also allows the secure distribution of quantum entanglement from an untrusted party 12.
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  • Testing the Structure of Multipartite Entanglement with Bell Inequalities
    Nicolas Brunner, James Sharam, Tamas Vertesi
    26 October 2011

    Abstract:
    We show that the rich structure of multipartite entanglement can be tested following a device-independent approach. Specifically we present Bell inequalities that allow one to distinguish between different types of multipartite entanglement, without placing any further assumptions on the devices used in the protocol. We first address the case of three qubits and present Bell inequalities that can be violated by W states but not by GHZ states, and vice versa. Next, we devise 'sub-correlation Bell inequalities' for an arbitrary number of parties, which can provably not be violated by a broad class of multipartite entangled states (generalizations of GHZ states), but for which violations can be obtained for W states. Our results give insight into the nonlocality of W states. The simplicity and robustness of our tests make them appealing for experiments.
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  • Can apparent superluminal neutrino speeds be explained as a quantum weak measurement?
    M. V. Berry, N. Brunner, S. Popescu, P. Shukla
    17 October 2011

    Abstract:
    Probably not.
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  • Heralded amplification for precision measurements with spin ensembles
    Nicolas Brunner, Eugene S. Polzik, Christoph Simon
    15 July 2011

    Abstract:
    We propose a simple heralded amplification scheme for small rotations of the collective spin of an ensemble of particles. Our protocol makes use of two basic primitives for quantum memories, namely partial mapping of light onto an ensemble, and conversion of a collective spin excitation into light. The proposed scheme should be realizable with current technology, with potential applications to atomic clocks and magnetometry.
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  • Disproving the Peres conjecture: nonlocality does not imply entanglement distillability
    Tamas Vertesi, Nicolas Brunner
    27 June 2011

    Abstract:
    Entanglement and nonlocality are both fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. Moreover, they play a prominent role in quantum information science, where they represent powerful resources for information processing. The exact relation between entanglement and nonlocality is however still poorly understood. Here we make progress in this direction by showing that bound entanglement-the most contrived form of entanglement-can lead to nonlocality. Specifically, we present a 3-qubit fully bound entangled state-from which no pure bipartite entanglement can be distilled on any bipartition-and show that it violates a Bell inequality. This disproves a long-standing conjecture made by Peres in 1999, and shows that quantum nonlocality does not imply entanglement distillability.
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  • Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics
    Nicolas Brunner, Noah Linden, Sandu Popescu, Paul Skrzypczyk
    13 June 2011

    Abstract:
    We argue that thermal machines can be understood from the perspective of `virtual qubits' at `virtual temperatures': The relevant way to view the two heat baths which drive a thermal machine is as a composite system. Virtual qubits are two-level subsystems of this composite, and their virtual temperatures can take on any value, positive or negative. Thermal machines act upon an external system by placing it in thermal contact with a well-selected range of virtual qubits and temperatures. We demonstrate these claims by studying the smallest thermal machines. We show further that this perspective provides a powerful way to view thermodynamics, by analysing a number of phenomena. This includes approaching Carnot efficiency (where we find that all machines do so essentially by becoming equivalent to the smallest thermal machines), entropy production in irreversible machines, and a way to view work in terms of negative temperature and population inversion. Moreover we introduce the idea of "genuine" thermal machines and are led to considering the concept of "strength" of work.
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  • Device-independent certification of entangled measurements
    Rafael Rabelo, Melvyn Ho, Daniel Cavalcanti, Nicolas Brunner, Valerio Scarani
    17 May 2011

    Abstract:
    We present a device-independent protocol to test if a given black-box measurement device is entangled, that is, has entangled eigenstates. Our scheme involves three parties and is inspired by entanglement swapping; the test uses the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality, checked between each pair of parties. Also, focusing on the case where all particles are qubits, we characterize quantitatively the deviation of the measurement device from a perfect Bell state measurement.
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  • Communication cost of simulating entanglement swapping
    Nicolas Brunner, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Gisin, Denis Rosset
    28 March 2011

    Abstract:
    Entanglement appears in two different ways in quantum mechanics, namely as a property of states and as a property of measurement outcomes in joint measurements. By combining these two aspects of entanglement, it is possible to generate nonlocality between particles that never interacted, using the protocol of entanglement swapping. We investigate the communication cost of classically simulating this process. While the communication cost of simulating nonlocal correlations of entangled states appears to be generally quite low, we show here that infinite communication is required to simulate entanglement swapping. This result is derived in the scenario of bilocality, where distant sources of particles are assumed to be independent, and takes advantage of a previous result of Massar et al. [Phys. Rev. A {\bf 63}, 052305 (2001)]. Our result implies that any classical model simulating entanglement swapping must either assume that (i) infinite shared randomness is available between any two locations in the universe, or that (ii) infinite communication takes place.
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  • Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
    Marcin Pawlowski, Nicolas Brunner
    22 March 2011

    Abstract:
    By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being 'device-independent'. Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against collective attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are non-characterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses and random-access codes.
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  • Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle and wave measurements
    Daniel Cavalcanti, Nicolas Brunner, Paul Skrzypczyk, Alejo Salles, Valerio Scarani
    10 December 2010

    Abstract:
    When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory pre- dicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; pre-established agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or produce very weak violations. In this paper we show that large violations for feasible states can be achieved if both photon counting and homodyne detections are used. Our scheme may lead to the first violation of Bell inequalities using continuous-variable measurements and pave the way for a loophole-free Bell test.
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  • Device-independent bounds on entanglement
    Yeong-Cherng Liang, Tamas Vertesi, Nicolas Brunner
    08 December 2010

    Abstract:
    Detection and quantification of entanglement in quantum resources are two key steps in the implementation of various quantum information processing tasks. Here, we show that Bell-type inequalities are not only useful in verifying the presence of entanglement, but can also be used to bound the entanglement of the underlying physical system. Our main tool consists of a family of Bell inequalities that cannot be violated maximally by any finite-dimensional maximally entangled state. The fact that these bounds arise from Bell-type inequalities also allow them to be obtained in a device-independent manner, i.e., without resorting to any knowledge of the actual measurements being performed on the individual subsystems.
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  • Limits on non-local correlations from the structure of the local state space
    Peter Janotta, Christian Gogolin, Jonathan Barrett, Nicolas Brunner
    07 December 2010

    Abstract:
    We investigate the connection between the structure of local state spaces and the strength of nonlocal correlations in the context of generalized probabilistic theories. We first present a family of models where the local state spaces are given by regular polygons. For each model we define the analog of a maximally entangled state and characterize its nonlocal correlations. This allows us to study the transition between quantum correlations and general no-signaling correlations by modifying only the local state space. We find that the strength of nonlocal correlations depends crucially on a simple geometric property of the local state space, known as strong self-duality. Then we prove in general that the correlations of maximally entangled states in any strongly self-dual model are limited, since they must satisfy the principle of macroscopic locality. This implies notably that Tsirelson's bound for correlations of the maximally entangled state in quantum mechanics can be regarded as a consequence of strong self-duality of local quantum systems. Finally, our results also show that there exist models which are locally almost identical to quantum mechanics, but can nevertheless generate maximally nonlocal correlations.
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  • Device-independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions
    Rodrigo Gallego, Nicolas Brunner, Christopher Hadley, Antonio Acin
    26 October 2010

    Abstract:
    We address the problem of testing the dimensionality of classical and quantum systems in a `black-box' scenario. We develop a general formalism for tackling this problem. This allows us to derive lower bounds on the classical dimension necessary to reproduce given measurement data. Furthermore, we generalise the concept of quantum dimension witnesses to arbitrary quantum systems, allowing one to place a lower bound on the Hilbert space dimension necessary to reproduce certain data. Illustrating these ideas, we provide simple examples of classical and quantum dimension witnesses.
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  • Bound non-locality and activation
    Nicolas Brunner, Daniel Cavalcanti, Alejo Salles, Paul Skrzypczyk
    23 September 2010

    Abstract:
    We investigate non-locality distillation using measures of non-locality based on the Elitzur-Popescu-Rohrlich decomposition. For a certain number of copies of a given non-local correlation, we define two quantities of interest: (i) the non-local cost, and (ii) the distillable non-locality. We find that there exist correlations whose distillable non-locality is strictly smaller than their non-local cost. Thus non-locality displays a form of irreversibility which we term bound non-locality. Finally we show that non-local distillability can be activated.
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  • On the efficiency of very small refrigerators
    Paul Skrzypczyk, Nicolas Brunner, Noah Linden, Sandu Popescu
    07 September 2010

    Abstract:
    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, and thus demonstrate that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.
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  • Physics within a quantum reference frame
    Renato M. Angelo, Nicolas Brunner, Sandu Popescu, Antony J. Short, Paul Skrzypczyk
    15 July 2010

    Abstract:
    We investigate the physics of quantum reference frames. Specifically, we study several simple scenarios involving a small number of quantum particles, whereby we promote one of these particles to the role of a quantum observer and ask what is the description of the rest of the system, as seen by this observer? We highlight the interesting aspects of such questions by presenting a number of apparent paradoxes. By unravelling these paradoxes we get a better understanding of the physics of quantum reference frames.
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  • Guess your neighbour's input: a multipartite non-local game with no quantum advantage
    M. L. Almeida, J.-D. Bancal, N. Brunner, A. Acin, N. Gisin, S. Pironio
    22 March 2010
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 230404 (2010)

    Abstract:
    We present a multipartite nonlocal game in which each player must guess the input received by his neighbour. We show that quantum correlations do not perform better than classical ones at this game, for any prior distribution of the inputs. There exist, however, input distributions for which general no-signalling correlations can outperform classical and quantum correlations. Some of the Bell inequalities associated to our construction correspond to facets of the local polytope. Thus our multipartite game identifies parts of the boundary between quantum and post-quantum correlations of maximal dimension. These results suggest that quantum correlations might obey a generalization of the usual no-signalling conditions in a multipartite setting.
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  • Measuring small longitudinal phase shifts: weak measurements or standard interferometry?
    Nicolas Brunner, Christoph Simon
    30 November 2009
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 010405 (2010)

    Abstract:
    Recently, weak measurements were used to measure small effects that are transverse to the propagation direction of a light beam. Here we address the question whether weak measurements are also useful for measuring small longitudinal phase shifts. We show that standard interferometry greatly outperforms weak measurements in a scenario involving a purely real weak value. However, we also present an interferometric scheme based on a purely imaginary weak value, combined with a frequency-domain analysis, which may have potential to outperform standard interferometry by several orders of magnitude.
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  • Closing the detection loophole in Bell experiments using qudits
    Tamas Vertesi, Stefano Pironio, Nicolas Brunner
    18 September 2009
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)

    Abstract:
    We show that the detection efficiencies required for closing the detection loophole in Bell tests can be significantly lowered using quantum systems of dimension larger than two. We introduce a series of asymmetric Bell tests for which an efficiency arbitrarily close to 1/N can be tolerated using N-dimensional systems, and a symmetric Bell test for which the efficiency can be lowered down to 61.8% using four-dimensional systems. Experimental perspectives for our schemes look promising considering recent progress in atom-photon entanglement and in photon hyperentanglement.
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  • Closure of theories with limited non-locality
    Jonathan Allcock, Nicolas Brunner, Noah Linden, Sandu Popescu, Paul Skrzypczyk, Tamas Vertesi
    12 August 2009
    Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)

    Abstract:
    An intensive research effort has recently been devoted to understanding the properties of general non-signaling theories, which can contain more non-locality than quantum mechanics. Here we argue that in order to form self-consistent theories, sets of non-signaling correlations with limited non-locality must be closed under a natural class of operations called wirings. After introducing useful concepts and tools to address the issue of closure, we present several case studies. Furthermore we discuss the implications of our findings in the broader context of this line of research, in particular concerning the origin of the boundary between quantum and post-quantum correlations, and towards finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.
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  • Recovering part of the quantum boundary from information causality
    Jonathan Allcock, Nicolas Brunner, Marcin Pawlowski, Valerio Scarani
    19 June 2009
    Phys. Rev. A 80, 040103(R) (2009)

    Abstract:
    Recently, the principle of information causality has appeared as a good candidate for an information-theoretic principle that would single out quantum correlations among more general non-signalling models. Here we present results going in this direction; namely we show that part of the boundary of quantum correlations actually emerges from information causality.
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  • Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks
    Stefano Pironio, Antonio Acin, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Serge Massar, Valerio Scarani
    27 March 2009
    New J. Phys. 11, 045021 (2009)

    Abstract:
    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) represents a relaxation of the security assumptions made in usual quantum key distribution (QKD). As in usual QKD, the security of DIQKD follows from the laws of quantum physics, but contrary to usual QKD, it does not rely on any assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. We present here in detail the security proof for a DIQKD protocol introduced in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2008)]. This proof exploits the full structure of quantum theory (as opposed to other proofs that exploit the no-signalling principle only), but only holds again collective attacks, where the eavesdropper is assumed to act on the quantum systems of the honest parties independently and identically at each round of the protocol (although she can act coherently on her systems at any time). The security of any DIQKD protocol necessarily relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. We discuss the issue of loopholes in Bell experiments in this context.
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  • Quantum experiments with human eyes as detectors based on cloning via stimulated emission
    Pavel Sekatski, Nicolas Brunner, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Gisin, Christoph Simon
    18 February 2009
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113601 (2009)

    Abstract:
    We show theoretically that the multi-photon states obtained by cloning single-photon qubits via stimulated emission can be distinguished with the naked human eye with high efficiency and fidelity. Focusing on the "micro-macro" situation realized in a recent experiment [F. De Martini, F. Sciarrino, and C. Vitelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253601 (2008)], where one photon from an original entangled pair is detected directly, whereas the other one is greatly amplified, we show that performing a Bell experiment with human-eye detectors for the amplified photon appears realistic, even when losses are taken into account. The great robustness of these results under photon loss leads to an apparent paradox, which we resolve by noting that the Bell violation proves the existence of entanglement before the amplification process. However, we also prove that there is genuine micro-macro entanglement even for high loss.
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  • Non-locality distillation and post-quantum theories with trivial communication complexity
    Nicolas Brunner, Paul Skrzypczyk
    27 January 2009
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 (2009)

    Abstract:
    We first present a protocol for deterministically distilling non-locality, which is optimal under a general assumption. In particular our protocol works efficiently for a specific class of post-quantum non-local boxes, which we term correlated non-local boxes. In the asymptotic limit, all correlated non-local boxes are distilled to the maximally non-local box, the Popescu-Rohrlich box. Then, taking advantage of a recent result of Brassard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 250401 (2006)] we show that all correlated non-local boxes make communication complexity trivial, and therefore appear very unlikely to exist in nature. Astonishingly, some of these non-local boxes are arbitrarily close to the set of classical correlations. This result therefore gives new insight to the problem of why quantum non-locality is limited.
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  • Couplers for Non-Locality Swapping
    Paul Skrzypczyk, Nicolas Brunner
    04 December 2008
    New Journal of Physics 11, 073014, (2009)

    Abstract:
    Studying generalized non-local theories brings insight to the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here we focus on non-locality swapping, the analogue of quantum entanglement swapping. In order to implement such a protocol, one needs a coupler that performs the equivalent of quantum joint measurements on generalized `box-like' states. Establishing a connection to Bell inequalities, we define consistent couplers for theories containing an arbitrary amount of non-locality, which leads us to introduce the concepts of perfect and minimal couplers. Remarkably, Tsirelson's bound for quantum non-locality naturally appears in our study.
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  • Emergence of Quantum Mechanics from Non-Locality Swapping
    Paul Skrzypczyk, Nicolas Brunner, Sandu Popescu
    19 November 2008
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 110402 (2009)

    Abstract:
    Recently the study of general non-signalling theories has brought a lot of insight to quantum mechanics. By investigating these generalized models, the hope is to find out what is essential in quantum mechanics; what makes it so special. Answering this question will definitely provide a deeper understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and may enable further developments in quantum information science. In the present paper, we revisit the paradigmatic model of non-signalling boxes and introduce the concept of a genuine box. This will allow us to present the first generalized non-signalling model featuring quantum-like dynamics. In particular, we present the coupler, a device enabling non-locality swapping, the analogue of quantum entanglement swapping, as well as teleportation. Remarkably, a clear boundary between quantum and post-quantum correlations naturally emerges in our study.
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  • Testing a Bell inequality in multi-pair scenarios
    Jean-Daniel Bancal, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Sandu Popescu, Christoph Simon
    07 October 2008
    Phys. Rev. A 78, 062110 (2008)

    Abstract:
    To date, most efforts to demonstrate quantum nonlocality have concentrated on systems of two (or very few) particles. It is however difficult in many experiments to address individual particles, making it hard to highlight the presence of nonlocality. We show how a natural setup with no access to individual particles allows one to violate the CHSH inequality with many pairs, including in our analysis effects of noise and losses. We discuss the case of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles. Finally, a comparison of these two situations provides new insight into the complex relation between entanglement and nonlocality.
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  • Simulation of partial entanglement with no-signaling resources
    Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Sandu Popescu, Valerio Scarani
    18 March 2008
    Phys. Rev. A 78, 052111 (2008)

    Abstract:
    With the goal of gaining a deeper understanding of quantum non-locality, we decompose quantum correlations into more elementary non-local correlations. In particular we present two models for simulating the correlations of partially entangled states of two qubits without communication, hence using only non-signaling resources. The crucial role of the quantum marginals is discussed.
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