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A Multi-level Worst Case Energy Consumption Static Analysis for Single and Multi-threaded Embedded Programs

Kyriakos Georgiou, Steven Kerrison, Kerstin Eder, A Multi-level Worst Case Energy Consumption Static Analysis for Single and Multi-threaded Embedded Programs. CSTR-14-003, University of Bristol. December 2014. No electronic version available.

Abstract

There is continuing interest in accurately predicting Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) of programs, particularly in embedded systems, where missed deadlines may cause critical failure. However, with the increase in battery-dependent systems, and the huge energy operational cost of big servers, optimal energy consumption becomes an additional and growing concern. In this paper, we utilize methodologies applied in the area of WCET to perform Worst Case Energy Consumption (WCEC) analysis. WCEC seeks to find a tight upper bound on the energy consumption of a program executed on an embedded platform, providing a guarantee that a program can operate within a defined energy budget. This work is the first to the best of our knowledge to extend such analysis to a higher level than the instruction set level, namely LLVM IR, and to bound the energy consumption of multi-threaded embedded programs.

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