Existing monocular vision-based SLAM systems favour interest point features as landmarks, but these are easily occluded and can only be reliably matched over a narrow range of viewpoints. Line segments offer an interesting alternative, as line matching is more stable with respect to viewpoint changes and lines are robust to partial occlusion. In this paper we present a model-based SLAM system that uses 3D line segments as landmarks. Unscented Kalman filters are used to initialise new line segments and generate a 3D wireframe model of the scene that can be tracked with a robust model-based tracking algorithm. Uncertainties in the camera position are fed into the initialisation of new model edges. Results show the system operating in real-time with resilience to partial occlusion. The maps of line segments generated during the SLAM process are physically meaningful and their structure is measured against the true 3D structure of the scene.