Toggling schemes for electronic votingMartijn Stam, Toggling schemes for electronic voting. CSTR-04-001, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. June 1999. PDF, 822 Kbytes.
This report could be split into two parts. The first part gives an overview of electronic voting in general: the schemes, a generic model, and the properties that define them. As a result much of this first part is known from the literature, but the formal definitions of the four important properties correctness, verifiability, robustness, and privacy are new. Our review of the literature confirms that the use of anonymous channels is controversial: it enables voters to choose for themselves whom to trust with their privacy, but disables the election authorities to guarantee privacy to the voters.
In the second part we introduce the novel concept of toggling. To toggle means to submit a new ballot, thereby changing an old vote, without revealing which ballot or vote is being changed, or `toggled', by who. We identify doubletoggling, the situation where a single old vote is changed more than once, as one of the major problems. Notwithstanding this problem, we are able to propose a toggling scheme, based on detecting the second attempt to change an old vote. We briefly describe some other applications of our toggling technique.